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Risk Factors for Addiction Potential among College Students

Abstract Background: Tendency toward addiction is provided before drug use begins. The present study aimed to identify the risk factors for addiction potential in the students of Arak University of Medical Sciences. Methods: We conducted this cross‑sectional study among 305 students from Arak University of Medical Sciences, Iran in 2016. We selected the students by stratified random sampling and collected the data by family and sociodemographic factors questionnaires and Addiction Potential Scale. Results: Male students, students with low economic status and high family members were more prone to addiction. We identified variable; addiction in close friends, adverse family conditions (dispute with the family), poor economic condition of families, and family size by controlling the effect of other variables, as risk factors for addiction potential. Conclusions: Preventive and intervention actions appear necessary considering the mentioned factors.Author: Mehdi Ranjbaran

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Association between chemerin rs17173608 and rs4721 gene polymorphisms and gestational diabetes mellitus in Iranian pregnant women

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as hyperglycemia detected during pregnancy and its risk is increased with obesity. Chemerin, an adipokine, has been proposed as potential mediators of insulin resistance in GDM. This case-control study was designed to assess the relation between chemerin SNPs rs4721 (or rs10278590) and rs17173608 and the development of GDM. One hundred thirty GDM pregnant women with GDM and 160 healthy pregnant women were enrolled in this study. The diagnosis of GDM was based on the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Group (IADPSG) criteria. Chemerin rs4721 polymorphism gene was amplified through PCR, and SNP was detected using restriction enzyme AluI. Genotyping for chemerin rs17173608 polymorphism was performed by using tetra-amplification refractory mutation system polymerase chain reaction (T-ARMS-PCR). Blood glucose level was measured by an enzymatic method. Our finding showed that the genotypes frequency of chemerin rs4721 polymorphism was significantly different between GDM and non-GDM groups (χ2=7.44, P=0.02). The genotype of rs4721 was significantly associated with GDM in co-dominant and dominant genotypes (GG vs GT, OR=2.3, 95%CI=1.24–4.24, P=0.008, and GG vs GT+TT, OR=2.21, 95%CI=1.23–3.99, P=0.008, respectively). No significant difference was observed in allele frequency between case and control groups (P=0.62). Moreover, the genotypes and allele frequencies of chemerin rs17173608 polymorphism did not show significant differences between GDM and non- GDM (P > 0.05). We concluded that the genotype of rs4721 was found to contribute significant risk to GDM while genotype of rs17173608 could not predict the risk of GDM

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Comparing the efficacy and safety of laryngeal mask airway,streamlined liner of the pharyngeal airway and I-gel following tracheal extubation

Abstract Adverse events following surgical operations are common complications due to removal of tracheal tube in contrast to the tracheal intubation. Awareness about the new methods and strategies for tracheal tube extubation is necessary for a safe and successful extubation. Therefore, we aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of laryngeal mask airway (LMA), streamlined liner of the pharyngeal airway (SLIPA) and I-gel in extubation time of tracheal tube. A one-single randomized clinical trial was conducted in 105 eligible patients in three groups including LMA, SLIPA and I-gel. The patients were under surgery after general anesthesia with propofol (2-3 mg/kg) and fentanyl (1-2 μg/kg). Hemodynamic responses and extubation consequences including coughing rate, laryngospasm, airway obstruction, apnea, breath holding and straining of patients, vomiting, and need for re-intubation were recorded every 5 minutes since inserting of supraglottic airway devices (SADs) until patients restore consciousness. Analysis of data was conducted in SPSS software by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and ANOVA for repeated measurements tests. The overall successful insertion was 100% for LMA and I-Gel and this rate was 97.1% for SLIPA method. A significant decrease was observed in trend of hemodynamic responses in all three groups. Nevertheless, the MBP was lower in LMA group and lower HR was observed in I-Gel and higher HR occurred in SLIPA (P < 0.05). Three groups was same statistically regarding sore throat, vomiting, coughing, breath holding, apnea, laryngospasm, and re-intubation need (P > 0.05). However, the incidence rate of apnea, and laryngospasm, as well as re-intubation need in SLIPA group was 2.9%, respectively. LMA, I-GEL and SLIPA could be considered as useful and safe devices for ventilation control after tracheal tube removal at the end of operation. Three devices were same regarding to sore throat, vomiting, coughing, and breath holding. However, LMA showed lower side effects while SLIPA was related to more occurrences of apnea, laryngospasm, and re-intubation need

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Endotracheal intubation in patients with difficult airway: using laryngeal mask airway with bougie versus video laryngoscopy

Abstract Airway management is essential for safe anesthesia and endotracheal intubation is the most important procedure by which critically ill patients can be better managed, especially if done quickly and successfully. This study aimed to compare the techniques of intubation through laryngeal mask airway (LMA) using a bougie versus video laryngoscopy (VL) regarding to intubation success and the quality of intubation indices in patients with difficult airways. This randomized clinical trial was performed on 96 patients aged 16-76 years with Mallampati class 3 or 4 who underwent elective surgery. Once the demographics were recorded, patients were randomly divided into two groups and the first group intubated with VL, and the second group intubated through laryngeal mask using a bougie. Then vital signs, arterial oxygen saturation, the time required for successful intubation, and ease of intubation were recorded. Here t-tests, chi-square, Fisher exact tests, and analysis of variance for repeated measurement were used to analyze the data in SPSS software. The overall success rates of intubation in VL and LMA groups were 46 (96%) and 44 (92%), respectively. The mean duration of intubation for the LMA and VL groups was 18.70 +/- 6.73 and 14.21 +/- 4.14 seconds, respectively (P < 0.001). Moreover, visual analogue scale score for pain in throat was significantly lower in VL group than LMA (1.65 +/- 0.76 vs. 1.33 +/- 0.52). Moreover, easy intubation in bougie group was 50%, while the easy intubation in VL was 73% (P = 0.023). In addition, incidence of cough was 31% in the LMA with bougie group and 9% in VL group (P = 0.005). The VL technique is an easier method and has a shorter intubation time than LMA using bougie, and causes a lower incidence of coughing, laryngospasm in patients that need intubation. Moreover, cough and discomfort in the throat tend to be less in . Author: Hesam Al-Din Modir -Esmail Moshiri VL, and the LMA could be used as replacement of VL in hard situations

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Effect of quercetin on the brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene expression in the rat brain

ABSTRACT: Quercetin is a ubiquitous fl avonoid found in many plants. Neuroprotective effects of quercetin have been shown in several in vitro and in vivo studies, but its mechanism of action has not been fully defi ned yet. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a fundamental neurotrophin with vital functions in the survival of neuronal cells. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effects of quercetin on expression of BDNF mRNA in the hippocampus of rat brain. METHODS: Male rats were daily gavaged with quercetin (10, 20 or 50 mg/kg·bwt) for 30 days. Hippocampal levels of the BDNF transcripts were assessed using quantitative (q) RT-PCR. RESULTS: Quercetin at doses of 20 and 50 mg/kg caused a signifi cant increase in the mRNA expression of BDNF as compared with the control group. Quercetin treatment at a dose of 10 mg/kg failed to cause any signifi cant changes in the levels of BDNF mRNA CONCLUSION: Our fi ndings suggest that the neuroprotective effects of quercetin may be at least partly due to its .Author: Farideh Jalali Mashayekhi inducing effects on the expression levels of the BDNF mRNA

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Anticonvulsive effects of endocannabinoids; an investigation to determine the role of regulatory components of endocannabinoid metabolism in the Pentylenetetrazol induced tonic- clonic seizures

Abstract 2-Arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and anandamide are two major endocannabinoids produced, released and eliminated by metabolic pathways. Anticonvulsive effect of 2-AG and CB1 receptor is well-established. Herein, we designed to investigate the anticonvulsive influence of key components of the 2-AG and anandamide metabolism. Tonic-clonic seizures were induced by an injection of Pentylenetetrazol (80 mg/kg, i.p.) in adult male Wistar rats. Delay and duration for the seizure stages were considered for analysis. Monoacylglycerol lipase blocker (JJKK048; 1 mg/kg) or alpha/beta hydroxylase domain 6 blocker (WWL70; 5 mg/kg) were administrated alone or with 2-AG to evaluate the anticonvulsive potential of these enzymes. To determine the CB1 receptor involvement, its blocker (MJ15; 3 mg/kg) was administrated associated with JJKK048 or WWL70. To assess anandamide anticonvulsive effect, anandamide membrane transporter blocker (LY21813240; 2.5 mg/kg) was used alone or associated with MJ15. Also, fatty acid amide hydrolase blocker (URB597; 1 mg/kg; to prevent intracellular anandamide hydrolysis) were used alone or with AMG21629 (transient receptor potential vanilloid; TRPV1 antagonist; 3 mg/kg). All compounds were dissolved in DMSO and injected i.p., before the Pentylenetetrazol. Both JJKK048 and WWL70 revealed anticonvulsive effect. Anticonvulsive effect of JJKK048 but not WWL70 was CB1 receptor dependent. LY2183240 showed CB1 receptor dependent anticonvulsive effect. However, URB597 revealed a TRPV1 dependent proconvulsive effect. It seems extracellular accumulation of 2-AG or anandamide has anticonvulsive effect through the CB1 receptor, while intracellular anandamide accumulation is proconvulsive through TRPV1 Authors: Mohammad Reza Palizvan, Mehdi Sadegh, Parisa Zarei

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Anticonvulsive effects of endocannabinoids; an investigation to determine the role of regulatory components of endocannabinoid metabolism in the Pentylenetetrazol induced tonic- clonic seizures

Abstract 2-Arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and anandamide are two major endocannabinoids produced, released and eliminated by metabolic pathways. Anticonvulsive effect of 2-AG and CB1 receptor is well-established. Herein, we designed to investigate the anticonvulsive influence of key components of the 2-AG and anandamide metabolism. Tonic-clonic seizures were induced by an injection of Pentylenetetrazol (80 mg/kg, i.p.) in adult male Wistar rats. Delay and duration for the seizure stages were considered for analysis. Monoacylglycerol lipase blocker (JJKK048; 1 mg/kg) or alpha/beta hydroxylase domain 6 blocker (WWL70; 5 mg/kg) were administrated alone or with 2-AG to evaluate the anticonvulsive potential of these enzymes. To determine the CB1 receptor involvement, its blocker (MJ15; 3 mg/kg) was administrated associated with JJKK048 or WWL70. To assess anandamide anticonvulsive effect, anandamide membrane transporter blocker (LY21813240; 2.5 mg/kg) was used alone or associated with MJ15. Also, fatty acid amide hydrolase blocker (URB597; 1 mg/kg; to prevent intracellular anandamide hydrolysis) were used alone or with AMG21629 (transient receptor potential vanilloid; TRPV1 antagonist; 3 mg/kg). All compounds were dissolved in DMSO and injected i.p., before the Pentylenetetrazol. Both JJKK048 and WWL70 revealed anticonvulsive effect. Anticonvulsive effect of JJKK048 but not WWL70 was CB1 receptor dependent. LY2183240 showed CB1 receptor dependent anticonvulsive effect. However, URB597 revealed a TRPV1 dependent proconvulsive effect. It seems extracellular accumulation of 2-AG or anandamide has anticonvulsive effect through the CB1 receptor, while intracellular anandamide accumulation is proconvulsive through TRPV1 Author:Mohammad Reza Palizvan,Mehdi Sadegh,Parisa Zarei

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Effect of Self-Care Education on Social Adaptability in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis

Abstract Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disease of the central nervous system (CNS), which affects the adaptability and interaction skills of the patient with family, relatives, and the society. Maintaining proper social relationships is very important for patients with MS. Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of self-care education on the social adaptability of patients with MS. Methods: This randomized clinical trial was conducted on 50 patients with MS, referred to the MS society of Markazi province, Iran. They were selected based on inclusion criteria and were randomly divided into 2 groups, intervention and control. The patients were educated face-to-face, through a 5-session program on self-care behaviors. Social adaptability scores of the groups prior to the intervention and 1 and 4 weeks after the intervention were compared. Demographic data and the personal resource questionnaire (PRQ) were used for data collection. PRO was translated into Persian and assessed psychometrically by the researchers. Results: In the intervention group, the mean social adaptability score 1 and 4 weeks after the intervention showed a significant increase as compared with the mean score prior to the intervention (57.36 ± 6.6 and 87.8 ± 9.7, respectively, vs. 29.04 ± 5.6; P = 0.0001). Such a significant increase was also observed between the social adaptability scores at Week 1 and 4 (P = 0.0001). No increase was observed in the scores of the control group. The mean social adaptability score 1 and 4 weeks after the intervention was significantly higher in the intervention group (57.36 ± 6.6 and 87.8 ± 9.7, respectively) than it was in the control group (30 ± 6.6 and 30 ± 6.6, respectively) (P = 0.0001). Conclusions: Results of the current study indicate that face-to-face education about self-care behaviors improved social interactions in patients with MS. Hence, this intervention can be utilized to enhance social skills in this patient population

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