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Anticonvulsive effects of endocannabinoids; an investigation to determine the role of regulatory components of endocannabinoid metabolism in the Pentylenetetrazol induced tonic- clonic seizures

Abstract 2-Arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and anandamide are two major endocannabinoids produced, released and eliminated by metabolic pathways. Anticonvulsive effect of 2-AG and CB1 receptor is well-established. Herein, we designed to investigate the anticonvulsive influence of key components of the 2-AG and anandamide metabolism. Tonic-clonic seizures were induced by an injection of Pentylenetetrazol (80 mg/kg, i.p.) in adult male Wistar rats. Delay and duration for the seizure stages were considered for analysis. Monoacylglycerol lipase blocker (JJKK048; 1 mg/kg) or alpha/beta hydroxylase domain 6 blocker (WWL70; 5 mg/kg) were administrated alone or with 2-AG to evaluate the anticonvulsive potential of these enzymes. To determine the CB1 receptor involvement, its blocker (MJ15; 3 mg/kg) was administrated associated with JJKK048 or WWL70. To assess anandamide anticonvulsive effect, anandamide membrane transporter blocker (LY21813240; 2.5 mg/kg) was used alone or associated with MJ15. Also, fatty acid amide hydrolase blocker (URB597; 1 mg/kg; to prevent intracellular anandamide hydrolysis) were used alone or with AMG21629 (transient receptor potential vanilloid; TRPV1 antagonist; 3 mg/kg). All compounds were dissolved in DMSO and injected i.p., before the Pentylenetetrazol. Both JJKK048 and WWL70 revealed anticonvulsive effect. Anticonvulsive effect of JJKK048 but not WWL70 was CB1 receptor dependent. LY2183240 showed CB1 receptor dependent anticonvulsive effect. However, URB597 revealed a TRPV1 dependent proconvulsive effect. It seems extracellular accumulation of 2-AG or anandamide has anticonvulsive effect through the CB1 receptor, while intracellular anandamide accumulation is proconvulsive through TRPV1 Authors: Mohammad Reza Palizvan, Mehdi Sadegh, Parisa Zarei

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Anticonvulsive effects of endocannabinoids; an investigation to determine the role of regulatory components of endocannabinoid metabolism in the Pentylenetetrazol induced tonic- clonic seizures

Abstract 2-Arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and anandamide are two major endocannabinoids produced, released and eliminated by metabolic pathways. Anticonvulsive effect of 2-AG and CB1 receptor is well-established. Herein, we designed to investigate the anticonvulsive influence of key components of the 2-AG and anandamide metabolism. Tonic-clonic seizures were induced by an injection of Pentylenetetrazol (80 mg/kg, i.p.) in adult male Wistar rats. Delay and duration for the seizure stages were considered for analysis. Monoacylglycerol lipase blocker (JJKK048; 1 mg/kg) or alpha/beta hydroxylase domain 6 blocker (WWL70; 5 mg/kg) were administrated alone or with 2-AG to evaluate the anticonvulsive potential of these enzymes. To determine the CB1 receptor involvement, its blocker (MJ15; 3 mg/kg) was administrated associated with JJKK048 or WWL70. To assess anandamide anticonvulsive effect, anandamide membrane transporter blocker (LY21813240; 2.5 mg/kg) was used alone or associated with MJ15. Also, fatty acid amide hydrolase blocker (URB597; 1 mg/kg; to prevent intracellular anandamide hydrolysis) were used alone or with AMG21629 (transient receptor potential vanilloid; TRPV1 antagonist; 3 mg/kg). All compounds were dissolved in DMSO and injected i.p., before the Pentylenetetrazol. Both JJKK048 and WWL70 revealed anticonvulsive effect. Anticonvulsive effect of JJKK048 but not WWL70 was CB1 receptor dependent. LY2183240 showed CB1 receptor dependent anticonvulsive effect. However, URB597 revealed a TRPV1 dependent proconvulsive effect. It seems extracellular accumulation of 2-AG or anandamide has anticonvulsive effect through the CB1 receptor, while intracellular anandamide accumulation is proconvulsive through TRPV1 Author:Mohammad Reza Palizvan,Mehdi Sadegh,Parisa Zarei

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Effect of Self-Care Education on Social Adaptability in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis

Abstract Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disease of the central nervous system (CNS), which affects the adaptability and interaction skills of the patient with family, relatives, and the society. Maintaining proper social relationships is very important for patients with MS. Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of self-care education on the social adaptability of patients with MS. Methods: This randomized clinical trial was conducted on 50 patients with MS, referred to the MS society of Markazi province, Iran. They were selected based on inclusion criteria and were randomly divided into 2 groups, intervention and control. The patients were educated face-to-face, through a 5-session program on self-care behaviors. Social adaptability scores of the groups prior to the intervention and 1 and 4 weeks after the intervention were compared. Demographic data and the personal resource questionnaire (PRQ) were used for data collection. PRO was translated into Persian and assessed psychometrically by the researchers. Results: In the intervention group, the mean social adaptability score 1 and 4 weeks after the intervention showed a significant increase as compared with the mean score prior to the intervention (57.36 ± 6.6 and 87.8 ± 9.7, respectively, vs. 29.04 ± 5.6; P = 0.0001). Such a significant increase was also observed between the social adaptability scores at Week 1 and 4 (P = 0.0001). No increase was observed in the scores of the control group. The mean social adaptability score 1 and 4 weeks after the intervention was significantly higher in the intervention group (57.36 ± 6.6 and 87.8 ± 9.7, respectively) than it was in the control group (30 ± 6.6 and 30 ± 6.6, respectively) (P = 0.0001). Conclusions: Results of the current study indicate that face-to-face education about self-care behaviors improved social interactions in patients with MS. Hence, this intervention can be utilized to enhance social skills in this patient population

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Effects of Cobalamin (Vitamin B12) on Gentamicin Induced Nephrotoxicity in Rat

Abstra ct Background The main side effect of gentamicin is nephrotoxicity. The effect of cobalamin (Cob) was investigated on gentamicin nephrotoxicity in rats. Methods Renal injury induced by i.p. injection of gentamicin (100 mg/kg) for 8 consecutive days. Cobalamin (6 mg/kg/day, i.p) treatment was done for 8 consecutive days as co-treatment and post-treatment protocol. Results Cobalamin significantly increased creatinine clearance levels and renal blood flow which were reduced by gentamicin. Also, cobalamin significantly improved serum electrolytes (sodium and potassium) levels which were disturbed by gentamicin. Cobalamin significantly compensated deficits in the antioxidant defense mechanisms, suppressed lipid per oxidation and ameliorated renal tissue damage mediated by gentamicin. Conclusion The results of the current study indicated that cobalamin effectively protected the kidney tissue against gentamicin induced acute nephrotoxicity in rats. The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities can be supposed the main factors responsible for the nephroprotective effect of cobalamin

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Subcutaneous administration CpG-ODNs acts as a potent adjuvant for an HIV-1-tatbased vaccine candidate to elicit cellular immunity in BALB/c

Objective To evaluate the combined effects of CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG-ODNs) adjuvant and subcutaneous injection route on efficacy of a HIV-1- tat DNA vaccine candidate using BALB/c mice as an animal model. Results Evaluation of cellular and humoral immunity of mice injected subcutaneously with HIV-1-tat gene cloned into a pcDNA3.1 vector indicated that significant levels of IFN-c cytokine secretion (900 pg/ ml), lymphocyte proliferation (2.5 stimulation index) and IgG2a (1.45 absorbance 450 nm) production could be achieved. These indicators of stimulated cellular immunity were elicited 2 weeks after the last injection (P\0.05). Conclusions Formulation of HIV-1-tat DNA vaccine candidate with CpG-ODNs as an adjuvant while administrated subcutaneously are a promising approach to induce effective cellular immunity responses against HIV-1 infection

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Ultrasonically facilitated adsorption of an azo dye onto nanostructures obtained from cellulosic wastes of broom and cooler straw

Abstract In the present work, ultrasonically facilitated adsorption (UFA) of a cationic dye [Basic Red 46 (BR46)] was examined using cellulosic nanostructures obtained from broom and cooler straw. Although the exclusive application of the nanostructured broom resulted in the 43.51% adsorption of BR46, the UFA process gave rise to the substantial removal efficiency of about 93%. In the case of the nanostructured straw, the efficiency was increased from 36.9% to 55.7%. The UFA process for both adsorbents reached the equilibrium within 60 min which was shorter than the time for the only adsorption. According to the values of the mean free energy (E), the decolorization via the UFA process applying broom (15.81 kJ/mol) and straw (11.18 kJ/mol) nanostructures was occurred chemically. An insignificant loss in the adsorption capacity of both adsorbents was observed after three regeneration tests by means of 0.05 M hydrochloric acid, indicating the good reusability potential of the as-synthesized cellulosic nanostructures Author:Reza Darvishi,Cheshmeh Soltani

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Histopathological changes in dental pulp of rats following radiotherapy

Background: Radiotherapy is one of the oral and pharyngeal cancer treatment methods that can cause damage to the tissues in the radiation area; the purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of radiotherapy on dental pulp tissue in rats. Materials and Methods: In this interventional, experimental double-blind study, 30 rats were studied in three groups (n = 10 each). The first group received 12 gray (Gy), the second group received 18 Gy in one session, and the third group was not exposed to radiation (control group). The 5 μm sections of mandibular molar tooth were prepared and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Samples were studied under optical microscope to evaluate and score inflammation, necrosis, hyalinization, and vascular congestion. The data were coded and analyzed by statistical tests of χ2 and Fisher's exact tests. The significant level of P = 0.05. Results: In Group 1, necrosis in two cases, inflammation in one case, hyalinization in one case, and vascular congestion in four cases were observed. In Group 2, inflammation in four cases, hyalinization in two cases, and vascular congestion in five cases were observed. In Group 3, inflammation was observed only in one case. In comparison between the groups, no significant differences were observed in inflammation (P > 0.05), necrosis (P > 0.05), and hyalinization (P > 0.05). However, the difference was significant for vascular congestion (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Radiotherapy with doses of 12 and 18 Gy had no significant effect on inflammation, necrosis, and hyalinization in all groups; however, the difference was significant for vascular congestion

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Validity and reliability of the farsi version of the ECOS-16 questionnaire for females with osteoporosis

Abstract The purpose of this study was to develop a Persian version of ECOS-16 Questionnaire and assess its reliability and validity. Two hundred and twenty women with postmenopausal osteoporosis were included in the study. Patients who were diagnosed as secondary osteoporosis by clinical and laboratory examinations were excluded. For reliability, an internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha coefficient) of ECOS-16 total score was calculated. The age of the study participants ranged from 50 to 75 years old (59.9 +/- 7). Cronbach's alpha of the Persian version of the ECOS-16 was 0.84. Therefore, the Persian version of the ECOS-16 is a reliable and valid questionnaire to be used in the evaluation of quality of life in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis.

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