Determination of the Antimicrobial Effects of Hydro-Alcoholic Extract of Cannabis Sativa on Multiple Drug Resistant Bacteria Isolated from Nosocomial Infections

ABSTRACT Background: The science of identification and employment of medicinal plants dates back to the early days of man on earth. Cannabis (hashish) is the most common illegal substance used in the United States and was subjected to extensive research as a powerful local disinfecting agent for mouth cavity and skin and an anti-tubercular agent in 1950. Methods: Clinical strains were isolated from hospitalized patients in Vali-e-Asr Hospital of Arak. The hydro-alcoholic extract of cannabis (5 g) was prepared following liquid- liquid method and drying in 45˚C. The antimicrobial properties of the extract were determined through disk diffusion and determination of MIC (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration). Results: First, the sensitivity of bacteria was detected based on disk diffusion method and the zone of inhibition was obtained for MRSA (12 mm), S.aureus 25923 (14 mm), E. coli ESBL+: (10 mm), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (7 mm). Disk diffusion for Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter demonstrated no inhibitory zones. Through Broth dilution method, MIC of cannabis extract on the bacteria was determined: E.coli 25922: 50µg/ml, E.coli ESBL+:100 µg/ml, S.aureus 25923:25 µg/ml, MRSA: 50 µg/ml, Pseudomona aeroginosaESBL+> 100 µg/ml, Pseudomonas: 100 µg/ml, Klebsiella pneumoniae: 100 µg/ml, and Acinetobacter baumannii> 1000. Conclusion: The maximum anti-microbial effect of the hydro-alcoholic extract of cannabis was seen for gram positive cocci, especially S. aureus, whereas non- fermentative gram negatives presented resistance to the extract. This extract had intermediate effect on Enterobacteriacae family. Cannabis components extracted through chemical analysis can perhaps be effective in .treatment of nosocomial infections Hossein Sarmadyan, Hassan Solhi, Tahereh Hajimir, Negin Najarian-Araghi, Ehsanollah Ghaznavi-Rad

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Fusion and development of 2-cell bovine embryos to tetraploid blastocyst with different voltages and durations

Abstract Background: The values of embryonic stem cell and cloning are evident. Production of clone from embryonic stem cells can be achieved by introduction of stem cell into a tetraploid blastocyst. Tetraploid blastocyst can be produced in vitro by electrofusion of 2-cell embryos. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of different voltages and durations on fusion rate of bovine 2-cell embryos and their subsequent development in vitro. Material and Methods: The in vitro produced bovine 2-cell embryos were categorized into 3 groups: (1) fused group (FG); 2-cell embryos fused by exposure to different voltages (0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.25 and 1.5 kV/cm) and durations (20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 μs), (2) exposed control group (ECG); 2-cell embryos exposed to different voltages and durations but remained unfused and (3) unexposed control group (UCG); embryos cultured without exposure to any voltage. The embryos from each group were cultured and fusion, cleavage and developmental rates were compared in each group. Results: The results show that increased voltage, increases the fusion rate up to 88% for 1.5 kV/cm; however, the rate of cleavage and blastocyst formation decreases significantly to 18% and 10% respectively (p<0.05). Increased duration does not significantly increase fusion rate, however, in high voltage, increased duration decreases cleavage rate and blastocyst formation rate. Blastocyst formation rate in UCG showed a better development (32%) compared to FG (20%) or ECG (22.5%) (p<0.05). Conclusion: It can be concluded that for optimal fusion, cleavage and development, one pulse of 0.75 kV/cm for 60μs should be applied.

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Association of Sterile Pyuria and Coronary Artery Aneurysm in Kawasaki Syndrome

Abstract- Kawasaki disease (KD) is an inflammatory multiorgan disease of unknown etiology. The most dramatic organ involved is the heart. There were a few studies about cardiac involvement and sterile pyuria. This study guides to determine if sterile pyuria is associated with coronary artery aneurysm (CAA) in KD patients and to consider it as a predicting factor for coronary artery involvement. Forty seven patients with KD were studied by echocardiography in admission and one month later. Urine analysis, complete blood count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein were measured in admission. Data were analyzed using SPSS-14 software. Patients' age was ranged from 13 month to 7 years old (mean age of 3.43±1.54 years). Thirty patients (63.8%) were male and 17 patients (36.1%) were female. Cardiac involvement was detected in 32 patients (68%) using echocardiography, of which CAA was reported in 8 cases (17%). Six of CAA (75%) were in association with sterile pyuria, although it was statistically insignificant (P>0.05). Although the majority of patients with CAA had sterile pyuria, this association is not statistically significant, thus it couldn't be considered as a predicting factor for CAA.

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Vice-chancellor for Social affairs of Minister of Health and Medical Education in Arak said that;

The need for serious attention to health in policy making of executive devices

Vice-chancellor for Social affairs of Minister of Health and Medical Education in Arak said that the executive devices should adopt policies that, while developing and progressing the country, will also pay close attention to the health issue.

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Representative of Arak , Komijan and Khondab in Parliament

Strengthening Health sector, with public participation is possible

Representative of Arak , Komijan and Khondab in Parliament said that strengthening the Health sector with its socialization and attracting public participation is possible and the formation of Health assembly is an attempt in this direction.

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